They are life threatening complications required prompt treatment because they are causing rapid mental and physical deterioration.
It usually occurs in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
- Acute infection
- Emotional stress
- Kussmaul’s breathing
- Acetone smell
- Marked dehydration
- Orthostatic hypotension
- Clouding of consciousness which can lead to coma.
Increased ketone bodies in blood and urine
Fluid and electrolyte replacement
Hyperosmolar non ketonic coma.
Occurrence in non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Predisposing factors are same as ketoacidotic coma.
- Marked dehydration – hyperglycemia – seizures-stupor-coma.
Treatment same as ketoacedotic coma.
Usually present with insulin treated patients.
Predisposing factors include insulin dose, delayed ingestion of meal and increased physical activity.
- Increased sympathetic activity that include sweating, tachycardia, palpitation.
- Headache, seizures.
- 50 % glucose I.V
- Glucagon IM