Category Archives: diseases

Safety Saves-Beware Doctors

  This research article is intended to be a source of information for those medical professionals who are concerned with health and safety at work and to provide information about the causes of injury and diseases at work so that we may design and implement suitable measures towards prevention. We, doctors spend the prime time… Read More »

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) or brittle bone disease is a group of autosomal dominant inherited disorders with abnormality in Type 1 collagen.[1], which usually result in bone fragility[2]. Emedicine  Frequency of OI in USA and worldwide, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, classification and differential diagnosis. The Cleveland Clinic Explains the types and management of the Osteogenesis Imperfecta… Read More »


According to Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing (2001). The main reason people were dropping private health insurance is the raising cost of premiums. The introduction of rebate will make private health insurance more easily affordable to both new and existing members and will halt the decline in the participation rate. It will give… Read More »

Private health insurance in Australia and New Zealand.

  Health expenditure According to Harper (2003) health is a large component of the Australian economy currently involving well over $40 billion of public and private expenditure (or 8.5% of GDP), around 32% of which is privately funded. The cost to Government of the rebate must be seen in this context and reviewed against the… Read More »

Epidemiology of Adult Rheumatoid Arthritis

Definition : Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease of undetermined aetiology involving primarily the synovial membranes and articular structures of multiple joints. The disease is often progressive and results in pain, stiffness, and swelling of joints. In late stages deformity and ankylosis develop. Incidence and Prevalence: Worldwide prevalence is approx 1%. Its… Read More »

Nature of Prader Willi Syndrome:

  Clinical manifestation: There are two clinical phases which characterizes PWS as shown in table 1 (Zellweger, 1988):   The two clinical phases of PWS (1) Phase 1            Moderate to severe neonatal hypotonia Poor suck Difficulty in feeding Hypogonadism Marked delayed in motor milestone   Phase 2            Much less hypotonia Short stature Hyperphagia Increasing obesity… Read More »

Conclusion of Prader Willi Syndrome

  PWS is a complex disorder with variable phenotypic changes according to the age of the patient. There are numbers of Associations and Support groups are working together to give a better management to the PWS individuals e.g. Prader Willi Syndrome Association (UK) and PWSA (USA) etc. Researches are still in progress in all concerned… Read More »

Management of Prader Willi Syndrome

  Care providers of a PWS patient must understand that the intervention means the management of clinical symptoms. Because PWS undergoes different developmental changes they must understand its impact on both patient and their families. Creation of a management strategy should be drown on the condition of disease. Professional experiences and from the knowledge of… Read More »

Animal model of Prader Willi Syndrome

  Over past decade it has been noticed that structural and functional homologies extend across very distantly related species. Now day’s homology to a relevant orthologus gene is a criterion of extracting the candidency of a gene to a disease. Virtually every mouse gene has the exact counterparts as human, and the same probably do… Read More »

Etiology and diagnosis of Prader Willi Syndrome

    The etiology and pathology of disease is not well understood until very recent advances in the field of cytogenetics and molecular genetics. These recent advances are now providing some insight of the fairly complicated syndrome. Approximately 70% of the PWS have been shown to have a deletion in chromosome 15, described as 15q11-q13.… Read More »

Case Study of Prader Willi Syndrome

    (1) This case study has been provided by Jack Sherman and adapted from Greenswag & Alexander, 1995.   In 1957, just after the publication of the article by Prader, Labhart and Willi (1956) Miss M. was born. Due to lack of information and awareness it took a long time to be diagnosed. M.… Read More »

Introduction to Genetics of Prader Willi Syndrome

  Many of the child behavior problems and cognitive capabilities can be explained within the framework of understanding the characteristic of Prader Willi Syndrome. Society, family and hereditary factors also influence it. PWS is a disease of altered growth and development. Affected persons are potentially overweight, sexually immature, and short and developmentally delayed individuals. The… Read More »

Genetics of Prader Willi Syndrome

Table of contents: Introduction: Nature of Prader Willi Syndrome: Etiology and Pathogenesis: Genetics of Prader Willi Syndrome: Animal Model: Diagnostic Criteria: Case Study: Management: Conclusion:


    1. Fader, Henry C., Computerized patient records. [online] URL [Accessed On Web 13 October 2004 ].   2. Ginneken van, Astrid M., 2002. The computerized patient record: balancing effort and benefit. International Journal of Medical Informatics [online], 65 (2002). Available from: [Accessed 13 October 2004 ].   3. Hilton, David, Information… Read More »


An introduction of Computerized Patient Administration System to the Health Care Organizations is no doubt a revolutionary success. It has been destined to play a crucial role in health care delivery to the patients, to streamline the information flow within the organizations and to control the cost and time in services provided 1 . Flexibility… Read More »

The dimensions of the change in the UK

  Until recently many hospitals and health-care centers developed their own self-sufficient patient administration systems: “two hospitals in the same town might have completely different software running on completely different types of computers 3 ”. No wonder that health services experienced communication difficulties. Thus, to ensure the consistency of information, the UK government has introduced… Read More »

The implications of this change

Enormous investments have gone into CPAS worldwide. The estimated costs for each large hospital are about £33mln., yet the overall benefits and costs of hospital information systems have rarely been assessed 17 . “When systems are evaluated, about three quarters are considered to have failed, and there is no indication that they improve the productivity… Read More »

Introducing Computerized Patient Administration System (CPAS) in the UK

Viktor Poluektovas   “We should connect every hospital to the Internet, so doctors can instantly share data about their patients with best specialists in the field”. President B. Clinton in his State of Union address on Feb. 4, 1997 1 Introduction It seems normal nowadays that progress in hardware development, mix in software applications and… Read More »

Zolling Elison Syndrome

    Definition: Disorder in which severe peptic ulceration is found due to edema or hyperplasia of islet of pancrease which secrete gastrin resulting in hyperchlorhydria. Pathology: Tumor my be benign 40 % and malignant in 60 % cases. it may be located in stomach , duodenum ,spleen or even lymph nodes, multiple endocrine neoplasia… Read More »