By | August 28, 2023

1. “ATP: All The Power” – Remember that ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the cell’s energy currency.
2. “GLUT4 to the Floor” – Recall that GLUT4 transporters move glucose to the cell membrane in response to insulin.
3. “PVT TIM HALL” – Order of enzymes in glycolysis: Phosphofructokinase, Aldolase, Triosephosphate isomerase, Hexokinase, Phosphoglucoisomerase, Phosphoglucomutase, Enolase, Pyruvate kinase.
4. “FAT CATs Have Long Tails” – Differentiate between fats and carbohydrates: Fats are more reduced than carbohydrates.
5. “A (Adenine) and T (Thymine) make Two” – In DNA, adenine always pairs with thymine.
6. “Positive charges Attract” – Remember that cations are positively charged ions.
7. “LEO the Lion says GER” – Loss of Electrons is Oxidation, Gain of Electrons is Reduction.
8. “HbA1c: Sugar on the Hemoglobin” – HbA1c indicates the average blood glucose levels over time.
9. “TCA: Can I Keep Selling Substances For Money, Officer?” – Order of intermediates in the citric acid cycle: Citrate, Isocitrate, α-Ketoglutarate, Succinyl-CoA, Succinate, Fumarate, Malate, Oxaloacetate.
10. “CAG: Cuddly And Gentle” – In DNA, cytosine, adenine, and guanine are pyrimidines.

11. “AGT: A Green Tree” – Adenine, Guanine, and Thymine are purines.
12. “Krebs Cycle: Citrate Is Krebs’ Starting Substrate For Making Oxaloacetate” – A mnemonic to remember the intermediates of the citric acid cycle.
13. “FADH2 is Fantastic” – FADH2 is an electron carrier in oxidative phosphorylation.
14. “Amino Acids: Some Little Pigs Lie In Their Pen” – A mnemonic to remember the essential amino acids (Serine, Leucine, Phenylalanine, Lysine, Isoleucine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Histidine, Valine).
15. “Vitamin C: Collagen Creator” – Vitamin C is essential for collagen synthesis.
16. “RNA: Red Nexus of Acids” – RNA contains ribose sugar instead of deoxyribose in DNA.
17. “Saturated Fats: Stackable, Straight, Solid” – Characteristics of saturated fatty acids.
18. “Hexokinase, Glucokinase: Different Kids Get Hugs” – Recall that hexokinase has a high affinity for glucose and works in most tissues, while glucokinase has a lower affinity and functions in the liver.
19. “Essential Fatty Acids: Linoleic and Linolenic acids are Essential” – Remember the names of essential fatty acids.
20. “NAD+ is Nice” – NAD+ is an important electron carrier.

21. “Biotin: Big Eater of C’s” – Biotin assists in carboxylation reactions.
22. “Uracil: U Are Special” – Uracil is only found in RNA.
23. “Cofactors: Some Enzymes Need Cozy Teddy Bears To Help” – Mnemonic to remember common enzyme cofactors: Serine, Enzymes, Nicotinamide, Coenzyme A, Tetrahydrofolate, Biotin, Thiamine.
24. “Cholesterol: Artistic Cat Catches Two Mice” – Cholesterol structure mnemonic.
25. “Glycogen: Good Carbohydrate Storage” – Glycogen serves as a carbohydrate storage molecule in animals.
26. “pH: Power of Hydrogen” – pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration.
27. “Nucleotide: NAG & NAM Are Glue” – NAG (N-acetylglucosamine) and NAM (N-acetylmuramic acid) are components of bacterial cell walls.
28. “Proline: Pro Football Players Bend Knees” – Proline has a unique cyclic structure.
29. “DNA Replication: Old People Can Sing And Laugh” – Steps of DNA replication: Origin recognition, Primer binding, DNA synthesis, Proofreading, Strand ligation.
30. “DNA Polymerase: New Polymers Require 3′-OH End” – DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to the 3′ end of a growing strand.

31. “RNA Polymerase: Reading RNA Requires Ribose” – RNA polymerase reads the DNA template to synthesize RNA using ribose.
32. “Endergonic: Energy Enters” – Endergonic reactions require an input of energy.
33. “Exergonic: Energy Exits” – Exergonic reactions release energy.
34. “Enzymes: Enthusiastic Workers Increase Reaction Rates” – Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions.
35. “Allosteric Regulation: Altering the Shape Alters Function” – Allosteric sites regulate enzyme activity by inducing conformational changes.
36. “PCR: Powerful Cloning Resource” – PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is used for DNA amplification.
37. “Lipids: Long Island People Store” – Lipids are stored in adipose tissue.
38. “Ribose: RNA’s Sweet Sugar” – Ribose is the sugar present in RNA.
39. “Thymine: The Tidy Twin” – Thymine always pairs with adenine in DNA.
40. “Carboxylation: Adding COO- is Vitamin Kool” – Vitamin K is involved in carboxylation reactions.

41. “Hydrophobic: Hide In Water’s Repellent Embrace” – Hydrophobic molecules repel water.
42. “Hydrophilic: Happily Hugs Liquid” – Hydrophilic molecules interact favorably with water.
43. “Hemoglobin: Holds and Gives Oxygen” – Hemoglobin transports oxygen in blood.
44. “Transcription: Transcribing RNA Takes DNA” – Transcription produces RNA from a DNA template.
45. “Translation: Turning RNA into Amino Acids” – Translation synthesizes proteins from RNA.
46. “Competitive Inhibition: Competition is Tight” – Competitive inhibitors compete for the active site of an enzyme.
47. “Noncompetitive Inhibition: Not Constrained” – Noncompetitive inhibitors bind to sites other than the active site.
48. “Nucleotide: Nucleobases Unite” – Nucleotides consist of nucleobases, sugar, and phosphate.
49. “Oxidative Phosphorylation: Oxygen Powers ATP” – Oxidative phosphorylation generates ATP using oxygen.
50. “Pentose Phosphate Pathway: Producing Precursors, PPP Proceeds” – The pentose phosphate pathway generates precursors for nucleotide synthesis.


Anatomy Mnemonics

Clinical  Mnemonics