Nephrology mnemonics

By | August 1, 2023


1. RIFLE: Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease – A grading system for acute kidney injury.
2. FENa: Fractional Excretion of Sodium – A diagnostic marker for distinguishing prerenal from intrinsic renal causes of acute kidney injury.
3. BUN-to-creatinine ratio: Helps differentiate between prerenal and intrinsic renal causes of acute kidney injury.
4. “BAG”: BUN (Blood urea nitrogen), Anion gap, Glucose – Components of the differential diagnosis for elevated osmolar gap.
5. NAGMA: Normal Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis – A mnemonic for the causes of non-anion gap metabolic acidosis.
6. “MUDPILES”: Methanol, Uremia, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Paraldehyde, Iron, Isoniazid or Infection, Lactic acidosis, Ethylene glycol, Salicylates – Anion gap metabolic acidosis causes.
7. “CaSR”: Calcium Sensing Receptor – Regulates parathyroid hormone secretion in response to changes in serum calcium levels.
8. “CHOPS”: Calcium, HCO3, Osmolarity, Phosphorus, Sodium – Components used to calculate anion gap.
9. “HARDUP”: Hyperparathyroidism, Acidosis, Renal Failure, Dehydration, Urinary Tract obstruction, Pseudohyperparathyroidism – Causes of hypercalcemia.
10. “COMMA”: Calcium, Osmolality, Magnesium, Metabolic acidosis, Anion gap – Components used to calculate the osmolar gap.
11. “HOTSPOT”: Hypokalemia, Obstructive uropathy, Tubular necrosis, Sickle cell disease, Polycystic kidney disease, Amyloidosis, Tumor lysis syndrome – Causes of acute renal failure.
12. “TICKLED”: Tubulointerstitial nephritis, Infarction, Crystal nephropathy, Kidney stones, Lymphoma, Extrinsic compression, Drugs/toxins – Causes of postrenal acute kidney injury.
13. “RITUAL”: Renal tubular acidosis, Immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, Tubulointerstitial nephritis, Urinary tract obstruction, Amyloidosis, Lupus nephritis – Common causes of chronic kidney disease.
14. “USA”: Uric acid stones, Struvite stones, Ammonium phosphate stones – Types of kidney stones.
15. “FASTK”: Fanconi syndrome, Acetazolamide, Spironolactone, Thiazides, Ketoacidosis – Causes of hypokalemia.
16. “MEMBRANOUS”: Membranous glomerulonephritis – A common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults.
17. “No Pee” for “No Albumin”: Nephrotic syndrome – A condition characterized by proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, edema, and hyperlipidemia.
18. “NECrotic”: Necrotizing glomerulonephritis – A rapidly progressive form of glomerulonephritis.
19. “FRESH”: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Renal hypoplasia, Ectopic kidney, Shrunken kidneys, Horseshoe kidney – Causes of small kidney size.
20. “BARR”: Benign familial hematuria, Alport syndrome, Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, Recurrent IgA nephropathy – Causes of recurrent hematuria.

some more

  1. Acute kidney injury: Acute Kidney Injury sounds like AKI, which is the abbreviation for acute kidney injury.
  2. Acute tubular necrosis: ATN sounds like Acute Tubular Necrosis.
  3. Glomerular filtration rate: GFR sounds like Gimme Five, which is a mnemonic for the five factors that affect glomerular filtration rate:
    • Glomerular filtration rate = GFR
    • Glomerular capillary pressure PGC
    • Net filtration pressure NFP
    • Renal blood flow RBF
    • Plasma colloid osmotic pressure PCOP
  4. Polycystic kidney disease: PKD sounds like Polycystic Kidney Disease.
  5. Renal cell carcinoma: RCC sounds like Renal Cell Carcinoma.
  6. Tubulointerstitial nephritis: TIN sounds like Tubulointerstitial Nephritis.
  7. Urinary tract infection: UTI sounds like Urinary Tract Infection.
  8. Acute kidney injury: Acute Kidney Injury can also be remembered by the mnemonic AEIOU, which stands for:
    • Acute
    • Electrolytes
    • Infection
    • Oliguria
    • Uremia
  9. Glomerular filtration rate: GFR can also be remembered by the mnemonic PASP, which stands for:
    • Pre-glomerular arteriolar pressure
    • After-glomerular arteriolar pressure
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
  10. Polycystic kidney disease: PKD can also be remembered by the mnemonic Peach, which stands for:
    • Parental inheritance
    • Early onset
    • Autosomal dominant
    • Chronic kidney disease
    • Hypertension