By | April 8, 2023


Treatment options in Complicated crown root fracture (Case report article in PDF)  Archives of Orofacial Sciences (2009), 4(1): 25-28

Management of Horizontal and Multiple Crown-Root Fractures( case report in PDF) World journal of dentistry 2011

Guideline on Management of Acute Dental Trauma The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD)

Dental trauma guidelines 2011 International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT)

Vertical root fracture Wikipedia

Traumatic dental injuries(soft tissue trauma)

A lecture in PDF by Bill Blood of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

Classification of dental injuries

Scanned chapter from some unknown sports medicine book with comprehensive text and pictures.

Management of crown and root fractures

Article from ‘A Summary Journal of Advances in Dentistry and Oral Health Care’

Crown fractures in maxillary central incisors

Article published in Int. J. Odontostomat.(2008)

Complicated crown fracture images

Functional-aesthetic treatment of crown fracture in anterior teeth with severe crowding

A case report published in RSBO by Diego Henrique et al.

Esthetic and endodontic management of a deep crown-root fracture of a maxillary central incisor

A case report published in Journal of oral science 2012 Tamotsu et al.

Aesthetic Management of Fractured Crown Segment: A Case report


Condensing osteitis

A guide to common oral lesions

46 pages notes by UMKC School of Dentistry

Front Page

Condensing osteitis in oral region

Case report


Pulp and Periapical

Presentation with pictures


Apical lesions

Notes by LSUHSC School of Dentistry


Radiographs of Condensing osteitis

Video on YouTube by Dr. In.Saini




  • Increase exposure to fluoride during tooth formation will lead to dental fluorosis.
  • Normal optimum level of water fluoride is upto 1ppm
  • Increasesd level of fluoride more then 1ppm will cause fluorosis
  • Clinically it appears as white opaque areas to brown discoloration and pitting of enamal
  • In severe cases hypomineralised enamel becomes very fragile and undergo surface damage
  • Management of dental fluorosis varies according to severity
  • In Mild cases micro and macro-abrasions and bleaching are treatment options
  • In moderate cases composite restoration and veneers are treatment options
  • In severe cases full crowns


Broken / fractured endodontic instrument

Broken instrument is one of the procedural accidents that occurs during cleaning and shaping of root canal system.

Causes of broken instrument in root canal:

  1. Improper use of instrument
  2. Same instrument used for many times
  3. Excessive force applied to file during cleaning and shaping


  1. Lubrication of instrument with irrigating solution such as sodium hypochlorite or with lubricating agent EDTA (ethyl diamine tetra acetic acid)
  2. Instrument should be examined before use, if there is and untwisting in file which will be visible as shiny spot then it should be discarded
  3. Small no. of files must be discarded after single use.
  4. NiTi files do not show any sign of untwisting so they must be discarded before untwisting is seen


There are three methods of management

  1. Make an attempt to remove it
  2. Attempt to bypass it
  3. Fill and obdurate it.


Dental Fistula/ Cutaneous Fistula of Dental Origin/ Suppurative Apical Periodontitis/ Apical Periodontitis With Fistula.

  • Dental fistula is a communication between the oral cavity and cutaneous surface of face
  • It is a squeal of infection from dental pulp that spread beyond the apex
  • Generally it is a painless condition because when drainage occurs, pressure relieves and symptoms disappear.
  • Chronic inflammation involves apical portion of tooth’s root.
  • Drainage mostly occur within oral cavity on facial or buccal side of alveolar ridge
  • Rarely occurs on cutaneous surface of face
  • Intraoral sinus tracts are common but extra oral fistula is not common.
  • Treatment involves complete debridement and obturation of root canal or Extraction.


Additional resources

Treatment of Oroantral Fistula: Experience With 27 Cases

Cutaneous sinus tracts (or emerging sinus tracts) of odontogenic origin: a report of 3 cases

Nonsurgical therapy of mucosal and cutaneous fistulae

Diagnosis of cutaneous sinus tract in association with traumatic injuries to the teeth 2011

Rhinolithisasis as cause of oronasal fistula

A Note On Etiology, Clinical Features And Management Of Oroantral Fistula

Diagnosis and treatment of odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts of endodontic origin: A case report  International Journal of Dental Research, 2 (1) (2014) 8-10