Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) MCQs

By | December 27, 2023

1. What is the estimated lifetime prevalence of PTSD in the general population?
A. 1-2%
B. 3-6%
C. 8-10%
D. 12-15%

2. Which type of traumatic event is most commonly associated with PTSD?
A. Motor vehicle accidents
B. Combat exposure
C. Rape or sexual assault
D. Natural disasters

3. The typical onset of symptoms following a traumatic event is:
A. Within 3 months
B. 3-6 months
C. 6-12 months
D. More than 12 months

4. Which cluster of symptoms involves persistent re-experiencing of the traumatic event?
A. Intrusion
B. Avoidance
C. Negative cognitions and mood
D. Arousal

5. Flashbacks are an example of what type of PTSD symptom?
A. Intrusive memory
B. Avoidance
C. Negative thoughts
D. Hypervigilance

6. Which medication has strong evidence for efficacy in treating PTSD?
C. Benzodiazepines
D. Second generation antipsychotics

7. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting what component of PTSD has shown effectiveness?
A. Re-experiencing avoidance
B. Arousal
C. Relaxation training
D. Exposure therapy

8. Which neural structure exhibits decreased volume in PTSD patients?
A. Prefrontal cortex
B. Amygdala
C. Hippocampus
D. Hypothalamus

9. Elevated levels of which stress hormone have been found in PTSD?
A. Epinephrine
B. Cortisol
C. Norepinephrine
D. Neuropeptide Y

10. Which psychiatric condition often co-occurs with PTSD?
A. Panic disorder
B. Bipolar disorder
C. Major depressive disorder
D. Schizophrenia

11. Which treatment approach directly targets and gradually exposes patients to traumatic memories?
A. Cognitive therapy
B. Virtual reality therapy
D. Trauma-focused CBT

12. What percentage of trauma-exposed individuals will go on to develop PTSD?
A. 10-20%
B. 20-30%
C. 30-40%
D. 40-50%

13. Risk for PTSD is higher among those with a prior history of what other disorder?
A. Substance use disorder
B. Depression
C. Bipolar disorder
D. Schizophrenia

14. Which treatment approach teaches skills to manage PTSD arousal symptoms?
A. Exposure therapy
B. Stress inoculation training
C. Cognitive processing therapy
D. Prolonged exposure

15. High PTSD severity is associated with which health conditions?
A. Substance use disorders
B. Obesity
C. Cardiovascular disease
D. All of the above

16. What is the female to male ratio of PTSD?
A. 1:1
B. 2:1
C. 3:1
D. 4:1

17. Which neurotransmitter system is implicated in the etiology of PTSD?
A. Dopamine
B. Norepinephrine
C. Acetylcholine

18. Symptoms of which PTSD cluster involve negatively biased trauma-related thoughts?
A. Re-experiencing
B. Avoidance
C. Arousal
D. Alterations in cognitions and mood

19. What is the average duration of untreated PTSD?
A. 6 months
B. 1 year
C. 2 years
D. 5 years

20. Which treatment approach uses eye movements and tones to reduce PTSD vividness?
A. Virtual reality therapy
C. Exposure therapy
D. Relaxation training

21. Heightened startle response is a symptom of which PTSD cluster?
A. Reexperiencing
B. Avoidance
C. Arousal
D. Cognition changes

22. What percentage of severe/very severe PTSD remits within 2 years without treatment?
A. 10-20%
B. 20-30%
C. 30-40%
D. 40-50%

23. Early life trauma exposure increases risk for PTSD from subsequent trauma through whatpathway?
A. Epigenetic changes
B. Neuroendocrine sensitization
C. Kindling effects
D. Amygdala reactivity

24. Which defense mechanism underlies avoidance seen in PTSD?
A. Repression
B. Projection
C. Reaction formation
D. Dissociation

25. Combat exposure in war increases PTSD risk through what proposed mechanisms?
A. Moral injury
B. Heightened physiological arousal
C. Prolonged stress exposure
D. All of the above

26. Memory consolidation difficulties occur due to which structure’s impairment in PTSD?
A. Prefrontal cortex
B. Hippocampus
C. Amygdala
D. Hypothalamus

27. Which treatment aims to modify maladaptive PTSD appraisals?
A. Cognitive behavioral therapy
B. Exposure therapy
D. Stress inoculation therapy

28. Nightmares are a characteristic symptom of which PTSD cluster?
A. Intrusive thoughts
B. Avoidance
C. Arousal
D. Mood changes

29. Which medication has mixed efficacy evidence for PTSD?
A. Prazosin
B. D-cycloserine
C. Propranolol
D. Hydroxyzine

30. Heightened risk for PTSD involves polymorphisms in genes regulating which neurotransmitter system?
A. Serotonin
B. Norepinephrine
C. Dopamine
D. Acetylcholine

31. The subtype involving significant functionally impairing numbing symptoms is:
A) With dissociative symptoms
B) Chronic
C) Delayed expression
D) Negative alterations in cognitions

32. Symptoms must be present for at least:
A) 1 month
B) 3 months
C) 6 months
D) 1 year

33. Which disorder shares similar neurobiological mechanisms with PTSD?
A) Panic disorder
B) Social anxiety disorder

34. Which treatments are recommended as first-line for PTSD by national guidelines?
A) SSRIs, exposure therapy
B) D-cycloserine, hydroxyzine
C) Prazosin, propranolol
D) TCAs, benzodiazepines

35. Risk is lower among those who seek social support after trauma due to:
A) Resilience factors
B) Coping mechanisms
C) Strong social bonds
D) All of the above

36. Epigenetic changes in PTSD involve:
A) DNA methylation
B) Histone modifications
C) Non-coding RNAs
D) All of the above

37. Highly imaginable and vivid mental imagery is seen in the:
A) Avoidance cluster
B) Intrusive thoughts cluster
C) Arousal cluster
D) Mood changes cluster

38. Risk is higher among those with what type of early childhood trauma history:
A) Physical abuse
B) Emotional abuse
C) Witnessing domestic violence
D) All types

39. Pharmacological agents uniquely target which neuroendocrine system alteration:
A) HPA axis
B) Sympathetic nervous system
C) Dopamine regulation
D) Immune function

40. Which treatment focuses on reliving and habituating to trauma memories and sensations:
A) Cognitive therapy
B) Exposure therapy
D) Stress inoculation therapy