USMLE-Type Clinical Questions on Pathophysiology”

By | September 14, 2023

1. A 45-year-old male presents with chronic cough, hemoptysis, and weight loss. A chest X-ray reveals a cavitary lesion in the upper lobe of the right lung. What is the most likely diagnosis?
a) Bronchial asthma
b) Bronchiectasis
c) Tuberculosis
d) Lung cancer

2. A 60-year-old female with a history of hypertension presents with sudden-onset weakness on one side of her body and slurred speech. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
a) Myocardial infarction
b) Stroke
c) Diabetic ketoacidosis
d) Pneumonia

3. A 25-year-old male presents with fatigue, pale skin, and shortness of breath. Lab results show low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. What is the most likely diagnosis?
a) Iron-deficiency anemia
b) Sickle cell anemia
c) Hemophilia
d) Thalassemia

4. A 35-year-old female experiences recurrent episodes of abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea. These symptoms are relieved after defecation. What condition is most likely responsible for her symptoms?
a) Inflammatory bowel disease
b) Irritable bowel syndrome
c) Celiac disease
d) Diverticulitis

5. A newborn exhibits jaundice within the first 24 hours of life. What is the most likely cause of this early-onset jaundice?
a) Physiological jaundice
b) Hemolytic disease of the newborn
c) Gilbert syndrome
d) Crigler-Najjar syndrome

6. A 55-year-old male with a history of smoking presents with progressive shortness of breath, wheezing, and a chronic cough with sputum production. What condition is most likely responsible for his symptoms?
a) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
b) Asthma
c) Pneumonia
d) Pulmonary embolism

7. A 40-year-old female presents with excessive thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss. Her fasting blood glucose levels are consistently elevated. What is the most likely diagnosis?
a) Type 1 diabetes mellitus
b) Type 2 diabetes mellitus
c) Gestational diabetes
d) Prediabetes

8. A 28-year-old female experiences severe abdominal pain that migrates to the right lower quadrant. She also has fever and tenderness on examination. What condition is most likely responsible for her symptoms?
a) Appendicitis
b) Cholecystitis
c) Diverticulitis
d) Crohn’s disease

9. A 50-year-old male presents with a swollen and painful joint, which is warm to the touch. He has a history of gout. What is the most likely cause of his current symptoms?
a) Osteoarthritis
b) Rheumatoid arthritis
c) Septic arthritis
d) Ankylosing spondylitis

10. A 65-year-old male presents with a sudden, severe headache, neck pain, and photophobia. On physical examination, there is nuchal rigidity. What is the most likely diagnosis?
a) Migraine
b) Cluster headache
c) Subarachnoid hemorrhage
d) Tension headache

11. A 30-year-old female presents with joint pain, fatigue, and a butterfly-shaped rash on her face. She also has proteinuria and hematuria. What is the most likely diagnosis?
a) Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
b) Rheumatoid arthritis
c) Sj√∂gren’s syndrome
d) Multiple sclerosis

12. A 45-year-old male complains of chest pain that worsens with deep breathing and is relieved when leaning forward. What condition is most likely responsible for his symptoms?
a) Myocardial infarction
b) Pneumonia
c) Pericarditis
d) Pleuritis

13. A 60-year-old female presents with sudden-onset severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and abdominal distension. Physical examination reveals absent bowel sounds and abdominal tenderness. What is the most likely diagnosis?
a) Acute pancreatitis
b) Small bowel obstruction
c) Acute appendicitis
d) Cholecystitis

14. A 55-year-old male with a history of alcohol abuse presents with confusion, jaundice, and abdominal pain. Lab results show elevated liver enzymes. What is the most likely diagnosis?
a) Alcoholic hepatitis
b) Cirrhosis
c) Acute pancreatitis
d) Hemochromatosis

15. A 35-year-old male presents with recurrent nosebleeds, easy bruising, and fatigue. Lab results show a low platelet count. What is the most likely diagnosis?
a) Hemophilia
b) Von Willebrand disease
c) Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
d) Leukemia

16. A 28-year-old female presents with abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea after eating dairy products. What condition is most likely responsible for her symptoms?
a) Lactose intolerance
b) Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
c) Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
d) Celiac disease

17. A 50-year-old male presents with chest pain that worsens with exertion and is relieved by rest or nitroglycerin. What is the most likely diagnosis?
a) Angina pectoris
b) Myocardial infarction
c) Aortic dissection
d) Pericard

itis

18. A 30-year-old female presents with severe abdominal pain, fever, and vaginal bleeding. She has a history of a missed menstrual period. What is the most likely diagnosis?
a) Ectopic pregnancy
b) Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
c) Appendicitis
d) Endometriosis

19. A 65-year-old male presents with memory loss, confusion, and difficulty performing daily tasks. Imaging shows brain atrophy and neurofibrillary tangles. What is the most likely diagnosis?
a) Alzheimer’s disease
b) Parkinson’s disease
c) Multiple sclerosis
d) Huntington’s disease

20. A 40-year-old male presents with sudden-onset severe chest pain, shortness of breath, and decreased breath sounds on one side of the chest. What condition is most likely responsible for his symptoms?
a) Pulmonary embolism
b) Pneumothorax
c) Pleuritis
d) Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)